LAB #5


Why are we afraid to go out of our way to help others?

  1. Bystander effect
  2. Public self-awareness
  3. Pluralistic ignorance
  4. Diffusion of responsibility
  5. Individual culture vs collective culture
  6. Prejudice
  7. altruistic behaviour


Diffusion of responsibility: one person does not react because they  feel that other bystanders would respond to the emergency

no one feels as if it’s their responsibility to intervene

source :

Pluralistic ignorance

This misconception of others’ values causes the group members to act in ways that differ from what they believe in. Pluralistic ignorance is a systematic error in our estimation of the beliefs of other people. We guess at the group members’ beliefs and norms based upon our observations, and our guess is wrong.

people actually are thinking of the same thing but they feel as if they’re arent so they do not act


For instance, people see a man on the floor laying down and is evidently in pain. You feel as if no one cares. No one glances or approaches him to help. So you figure that you shouldn’t do anything because you’re afraid to be judged for it. When actually, everyone feels the same way you do.

Why we don’t speak up in this situations and simply agree with the norm?

  • Wanting  to blend with the group
  • Fear of being abandoned/isolated from others
  • Need to belong
  • Not wanting to be seen as weird or made fun of

When a lecturer asks a class ‘Any questions?’ there will often be a deafening silence, even if nobody understands.

Pluralistic ignorance is where they assume nothing is wrong because nobody else looks concerned.



An unfair and unreasonable opinion/feeling when formed without enough thought/knowledge

For instance, assuming a homeless person is drunk that is why he is laying on the floor but in fact he was attacked by someone.

Hugo Alfredo Tale-Yax

2-year-old baby crushed by van and no one helped


  • people are afraid of being framed for their good intentions


Results show that straightforward appeals for help were more likely to be met with assistance when there were fewer potential helpers or more victims;

People who possessed an ALTRUISTIC behaviour were more likely to feel warmer(physically)…and happier.

A potential immediate self-reward system of altruistic behaviors has practical meaning in promoting people’s well-being and quality of life in both daily life and times of crisis.


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