LAB #5


Why are we afraid to go out of our way to help others?

  1. Bystander effect
  2. Public self-awareness
  3. Pluralistic ignorance
  4. Diffusion of responsibility
  5. Individual culture vs collective culture
  6. Prejudice
  7. altruistic behaviour


Diffusion of responsibility: one person does not react because they  feel that other bystanders would respond to the emergency

no one feels as if it’s their responsibility to intervene

source :

Pluralistic ignorance

This misconception of others’ values causes the group members to act in ways that differ from what they believe in. Pluralistic ignorance is a systematic error in our estimation of the beliefs of other people. We guess at the group members’ beliefs and norms based upon our observations, and our guess is wrong.

people actually are thinking of the same thing but they feel as if they’re arent so they do not act


For instance, people see a man on the floor laying down and is evidently in pain. You feel as if no one cares. No one glances or approaches him to help. So you figure that you shouldn’t do anything because you’re afraid to be judged for it. When actually, everyone feels the same way you do.

Why we don’t speak up in this situations and simply agree with the norm?

  • Wanting  to blend with the group
  • Fear of being abandoned/isolated from others
  • Need to belong
  • Not wanting to be seen as weird or made fun of

When a lecturer asks a class ‘Any questions?’ there will often be a deafening silence, even if nobody understands.

Pluralistic ignorance is where they assume nothing is wrong because nobody else looks concerned.



An unfair and unreasonable opinion/feeling when formed without enough thought/knowledge

For instance, assuming a homeless person is drunk that is why he is laying on the floor but in fact he was attacked by someone.

Hugo Alfredo Tale-Yax

2-year-old baby crushed by van and no one helped


  • people are afraid of being framed for their good intentions


Results show that straightforward appeals for help were more likely to be met with assistance when there were fewer potential helpers or more victims;

People who possessed an ALTRUISTIC behaviour were more likely to feel warmer(physically)…and happier.

A potential immediate self-reward system of altruistic behaviors has practical meaning in promoting people’s well-being and quality of life in both daily life and times of crisis.



LAB #4


Logical argument: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that diabetes accounted for $2.6 billion in health care costs in 1969. Today’s number is an unbelievable $100 billion a year.


Ethical argument: I tend to sympathize with these portly fast-food patrons, though. Maybe that’s because I used to be one of them.


Pathetic argument:  Lunch and dinner, for me, was a daily choice between McDonald’s, Taco Bell, Kentucky Fried Chicken or Pizza Hut. Then as now, these were the only available options for an American kid to get an affordable meal.


Analogy: As with the tobacco industry, it may be only a matter of time before state governments begin to see a direct line between the $1 billion that McDonald’s and Burger King spend each year on advertising and their own swelling health care costs.

LAB #3


I brought an excerpt of the book Ham on Rye by Charles Bukowski.

His style of writing is simple and straight-forward. There is no use of any fancy words. He keeps his sentences short. here is rarely any imagery unless it is about something meaningful to him. He doesn’t express much emotion most of the time but when he does, it is in a very subtle way. His vocabulary is very casual yet can be surprisingly rude or inappropriate at times.


I was around 6-7 years old when my dad had asked me one morning to carry this jar of mayonnaise upstairs to my grandparents. My mom who would worry as usual asked me if I was sure that I was capable of it. Honestly, the jar was a bit heavy since it was made out of glass, but either way I was decided to carry it on my own. As I was skipping rapidly up the stairs, confident that I was strong enough, I tripped on the lasts ones and ended up falling onto the floor. The jar has broken into pieces right between my hands. I wasn’t badly hurt though but everything was a blur. Everyone was surrounding me, picking me up and making sure I was okay. I think I remembered myself to be crying afterwards. However, when I went to class, I was trying to brag to my classmates on how I had cuts on my hands because of my fall and that I could have missed school if I wanted to. I thought I was tough.


One morning, my father told me to bring a jar of mayonnaise to my grandparents. My mother worried. She didn’t want me getting hurt. The jar wasn’t that heavy. I took it and ran up the stairs to my grandparents house. I was going too fast. I slipped and fell. The jar was broken into pieces. Suddenly, I was surrounded.


I was running up the stairs to bring a glass jar to my grandparents who lived right above our house. Each step I took, my  feet were hitting the stairs faster and faster. My heart was began to beat just as fast. I had a smile plastered on my face… till I lost control of my legs and tripped on the last stair. The glass hit the floor and broke into pieces between my fingers. My grandfather picked me up as I cried. Even if I did cry, I never let my friends know that.


As the sun rose, I woke up feeling very happy and energetic. I was about 7 years old. Back then, I never had a worry in the world. I was the best of the best. Filled with confidence, nothing could ever stop me. So, when my dad asked me that day if I could bring this jar of thick, creamy dressing consisting of egg yolks beaten with oil and vinegar and seasoned (also known as mayonnaise) to my grandparents, I gladly accepted the challenge. My mom was always so concerned thinking I wasn’t capable of handling these kind of things. Are mothers always like this? Anyways, I was going to prove her wrong. I ran up the stairs as fast as a 7-year-old girl could. My feet where thumping at each step. I made sure my parents could hear how fast I can be. I was going way too fast, even faster than flash, when I lost my  footing and fell flat onto the floor of my grandparents. Flushed with such embarrassment and disappointment, I let myself cry heavy tears.




  • Standing up for something takes courage…but how do we know if it is the right thing to do?


Anecdote: kitty genovese

a young girl, raped and stabbed repeatedly because neighbours failed to call 911 thinking others must have already done so.

People only want to be good as they want to be. :


couldnt open:


I spent my time doing research in order to find a more specific subject to tone it down to.  By coincidence, I found a topic that is directly related to a current event I was interested in.

LAB #2


2. My aunts were in a restaurant all together eating with their families. One of them nudged the others and made sign of them to subtly look at the man at the other table. The man was sitting behind another woman’s table and was stealing stuffs from her purse that was sitting right behind her. Aware of the situation, none of them decided to do or say anything.

3. This lead me to ask, why are people are afraid to step up?

Why are people afraid to do a good act?

Why are people afraid to stand up for justice?

Why are we afraid to interfere?

Why do we need courage to stand up for people?


4. Intended audience are the young teenagers because they are the future. Starting with them, I think can make a difference…It inspires the elder ones as well to see the young ones doing good. It eliminates typical stereotypes such as the new generation lack courtesy or that they are not raised properly.

5. I think that the purpose of this article is just to get other people to realize that there is no harm in trying to do something good. If one person refuses a hand, what matters is that you try. Hopefully, this just shows others that humanity still exists and what makes us united is when we stand up for each other. Even if most of us will see something and then forget about it the next day, maybe this article could at least get them to be reflecting about it the next time they find themselves in a situation where they can do something good.

6. This would be interesting to read because I believe we have all been in this situation. We might have not given up our seat for an elderly or we may have pretended not to see an injustice be done and not report it. We live in a society where it is easy to simply be passive about wrong doings…For example, when we see someone being beaten or insulted, not much have the reflex to stop it. Most would pull out their phones and record instead of actually doing something about it.

7. Patient care. Communication. Going out of my way to help others.

8. I plan to write about why many of us are so afraid or hesitant to help others when needed. There are many examples such as social experiment on the show “what would you do”. One that inspired me to write this was when they hired an actor to insult and degrade an employee that suffered from down syndrome.

9. I’m looking forward to writing about this topic because it is a question I have found myself asking in multiple situations. I have been inspired to write about this because I enjoy helping others, but many times I feel myself afraid to. What if they don’t want my help? What if I’m interfering in something that is none of my business?  Every time I do an act of kindness, I feel my heart beat fast as if I’m nervous. I’m guessing it’s more of a rush of pleasure because I am proud to be doing something well even if it’s the slightest thing. However, most of the times people ignore or pretend to be too busy instead of helping another person out. It bothers me because what if I was that person in need? I would want someone to step up and help out. On the other hand, what I’m worried about is not being able to write enough about this topic because I won’t have enough to say. I feel as if the question can be easily answered…




I was in the metro train sitting next to the window watching those flashing lights passing by. I was in a good mood per usual lost in my thoughts. Every things else around me was buzzing, group of people chatting , others listening to music and some sleeping. At one stop of the metro, an old kyphotic man came into the train holding his cane on one side. Seeing that no one has offered their seat, I figured why shouldn’t I? So, I tried to make eye contact in order to get his attention to have a seat but he kept his head faced to the door. I went out of my way to stand up and gently told him ” Monsieur, vous-pouvez vous asseoir” pointing out my empty seat. Few people were staring now, wondering if he would sits. He didn’t respond. Thinking he didn’t hear me, I repeated myself lightly tapping his shoulder. Then, all of a sudden, he screamed at me “NO!” and shook me off. It took me completely by surprise. I hurried and went to my seat feeling my face flushed with embarrassment. I could feel the tip of my ears burning. Everyone else were as startled as I was, they were all staring. I heard a few laughs from one of the guys standing but I didn’t bother.


I was in the train sitting next to the window in a good mood and lost in my thoughts. Every things else around me was buzzing, group of people chatting , others listening to music and some sleeping. Onto the next station, an old kyphotic man came in holding his cane on one side. Seeing that no one has offered their seat, I figured I would. I tried to make eye contact in order to get his attention but he kept his head faced to the door. I went to stand up next to him and gently say ” Monsieur, vous-pouvez vous asseoir” pointing out my empty seat. He didn’t respond. I repeated myself lightly tapping his shoulder. All of a sudden, he turned to screamed at me “NO!” and shook me off. I hurried and went to my seat feeling my face flushed with embarrassment. I could feel the tip of my ears burning. Everyone else were as startled as I, they were all staring. I heard a few laughs from one of the guys standing but I didn’t bother. I was in complete shock.


One bright day, I was sitting comfortably in the metro train sitting next to the tinted window feeling like I was floating on cloud 9. I was caught up in my thoughts while other people were busing themselves with dull conversations, loud music or even catching on some sleep they’ve been missing. As we moved onto the next metro station, the train stopped and opened its way, letting in an old grumpy man who walked as if he had the whole world on his shoulders. He carried his cane by his side to help him support such heavy burdens he had to carry. I have seem to noticed that no one else seemed to pay attention to him. Feeling helpful, I decided to offer him my seat. Yet, his eyes wouldn’t cross mines. I picked myself up and marched right up to him and propose him to take my seat.